Nyasa Tilakam of Swami Desikan

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Aug 12, 1998


This stotram consists of 32 Sloka-s. The name nyâsa tilakam was bestowed on this stotram by svâmi deśikan himself (Slokam 32). SrI râmadeśikâcârya svâmi points out that just as a tilakam enhances the appearance of the wearer’s face, nyâsa tilakam brings out the beauty of prapatti exquisitely, consistent with its name. Lord SrI ranganâtha is the mūrti at whose Feet svâmi deśikan does śaraṇâgati in this composition.

Of the 32 Sloka-s, the matter dealing with the theory and practice of prapatti is dealt with in the first 22 Sloka-s. The remaining 10 Sloka-s deal with the remorse the prapanna should feel if he transgresses the life he has undertaken as a prapanna, the lack of the very need for such transgression in the first instance, the lack of need for a prapanna to praise anyone else other than bhagavân, and a re-affirmation that true knowledge consists in realizing that He is the only Truth, and that true wealth lies in doing kaimkaryam to Him.

One aspect of nyâsa tilakam is that svâmi deśikan elaborates on the unique role of pirâṭṭi in the cetana’s prapatti. In nyâsa daśakam and nyâsa vimśatih, the concept of prapatti was explained and some of the issues raised by its opponents were explicitly addressed. In nyâsa tilakam, svâmi deśikan outlines his own experiences and the results of his prapatti, and thus reinforces the thoughts conveyed in the other works. This is also the only stotram for which svâmi deśikan’s illustrious son, SrI kumâra varadâcârya, has furnished a commentary out of the 28 stotra-s by svâmi deśikan. Some of the highlights of this stotra are summarized below.


prapatti for moksha should be done only once

prapatti for moksha should be done only once. svâmi deśikan poetically points out that it is as if this is the significance of the abhaya mudra of Lord ranganâtha’s right hand (bhagavân indicating to the prapanna that there is no need for him to fear any more after the prapatti has been done once). SrI D. râmasvâmi aiyengâr svâmi gives reference to the same idea expressed by svâmi deśikan in his tamizh composition aḍaikkalap-pattu - உமது அடிகள் அடைகின்றேன் என்று ஒரு கால் உரைத்தவரை அமையும் இனி என்பவர் போல் அஞ்ஜலெனக்கரம் வைத்து . This commentator also points out that our great âcârya-s instruct those who perform prapatti that after they have performed prapatti at the feet of the Lord, they can from now on fix their gaze on the abhaya mudra of the Lord and derive solace and comfort from the way it promises protection.

SrI kumâra varadâcârya gives the interpretation that if prapatti is done more than once, bhagavân will feel in debt because He has already given the ultimate pleasure one can seek after the first prapatti, and will have nothing more to give if the prapatti is repeated (Slokam 2).

piṛaṭṭi, bhagavân, and prapatti

In the âcârya paramparâ, bhagavân and pirâṭṭi are the first and foremost (Slokam 1). svâmî deśikan points out that pirâṭṭi and bhagavân are inseparable, and prapatti done to one is prapatti done simultaneously to both. svâmi deśikan gives a simple example to illustrate this point. When the veda prescribes a yâga to mahendra, one cannot do yâga to indra without associating him with the epithet “mahâ”, or cannot perform yâga to the guṇa called “mahâ” and a separate yag~na for “indra”. So also, when we do prapatti, there is no distinction between pirâṭṭi and bhagavân, and our surrender applies to both (Slokam 4).

pirâṭṭi’s purushakâratva (recommendation, support, advocacy)

The only thing that is in between us and śrîvaikuṇṭham is the enormous sins that we have committed. The only prâyaścitta that is available to most of us for our heaps of sins is prapatti. The greatness and efficacy of prapatti has been taught to us by bhagavân in His râma and kṛshṇa incarnations, and also by the great sages and âcârya-s. As the first step in seeking prapatti, we should seek the protection of our divine Mother, pirâṭṭi, who speaks for us and pleads for us with bhagavân --तदारम्भे तस्याः गिरम् अवधानेन मनसा अखिल नाथस्य एकां महिषीं तां श्रियं प्रपद्ये (Slokam 3). In lakshmi tantra, pirâṭṭi’s words to us are: “Surrender to Me when you perform the prâyaścitta for your sins”.

प्रायश्चित्त प्रसङ्गे तु सर्व पाप समुद्भवे |
माम् एकां देवदेवस्य महिषीं शरणं श्रयेत् ||

As our divine Mother, She takes the responsibility to plead our case when bhagavân is vexed with our enormous sins. Without Her pleading our case, we have no chance of approaching Him (adhṛshyatvam - non-approachability - Slokam 4).

SrI D.râmasvâmi aiyengâr points out that SrI râmânuja in his śaraṇâgati gadyam, also first seeks pirâṭṭi’s Grace, and after obtaining Her blessing, performs prapatti at the feet of the Lord. SrI deśika follows SrI râmânuja in performing SrI prapatti here. This is also called purushakâra prapatti.

bhagavân’s dayâ and soulabhya

It is out of His dayâ that He created brahma and gave him the knowledge of the veda-s so that brahma could create and maintain the rest of the beings. He is the Supreme Lord of all the gods (Slokam 5). It is out of His soulabhya (being easily accessible to even the lowliest of beings) that He took the incarnation as the cowherd kṛshṇa in the midst of the gopi-s, and it is out of the same soulabhya that He has taken the incarnations in the form arcâ-mūrti in various puṇya-keshetra-s such as SrI rangam (Slokam 6). bhagavân’s kaṭâksham is all that is needed for the removal of all the sins that we have accumulated (Slokam 8).

Importance of âcârya kaṭâksham in prapatti

The point was made in the introduction that in nyâsa tilakam svâmi ḍeśikan illustrates the principles of prapatti that had been stated in other stotra-s such as nyâsa vimśatih. An example of this is found in Slokam 9. Here svâmi deśikan sings the praise of Lord ranganâtha for having led him to a great âcârya, and indicates that bhagavân has in the process completed a major part of His responsibility in leading him to moksham. Another way to understand this Slokam is that choosing an âcârya with the âcârya lakshaṇa-s described in nyâsa vimśatih is a major and very important part of prapatti, and this also happens only with bhagavâns’ anugraham.

For a cetana who is full of enormous sins, unable to undertake j~nâna yoga, karma yoga, and bhakti yoga, and really unclear and confused about prapatti but all the same comes forward to utter the mantra-s required for prapatti, it is bhagavân’s karuṇâ that He reveals an âcârya to the cetana. The âcârya’s mere kaṭâksha starts removing the confusion and makes the prapatti’s underlying significance clear and assures ultimate moksham (Slokam 20).

svâmi deśikan compares the help of the âcârya to the prapanna by giving three examples (Slokam 21) which are significant in their difference. First is the case as that of someone with clear eyesight leading someone who is totally blind. The analogy here is that even though we don’t have the j~nâna, the âcârya takes care of this deficiency. Next he gives the example of a lame person being ferried across from one shore to the other. Here, unlike in the first example, the person cannot even take any effort as in the case of holding the hand of the person who leads, but needs to be carried into the boat and carried out from the boat on the other shore. The third example is the family of a king’s servant who has received enormous gifts from the king for his service. Even though the family enjoys the benefits of the gift, they have nothing to do with the king directly. The âcârya’s help is similarly both direct and indirect, and he lifts up the Sishya in many different ways as needed in order to ensure that the Sishya gets moksha through prapatti in spite of his lack of knowledge and any other deficiencies. The importance of this Sloka is evident in that svâmi deśikan refers to this Sloka again in his rahasyatraya sâra.

The Greatness of prapatti as a moksha upâya

prapatti is guaranteed to yield the desired result in this birth itself, does not require any special vedic observances such as agni homa etc. which are required as part of bhakti yoga and for which some may not be qualified because of their varṇa etc., and is open to all just like the dictum “Speak the Truth” is open to all. Also, because of the extreme difficulty of observing bhakti yoga, one who observes the bhakti yoga may tend to feel some kind of importance for himself and his act, including the feeling that he is following this as the primary “upâya” for moksha (apihita-sva-upâya bhâva - Slokam 10), and forget that bhagavân is the real upâya. Because of its extreme simplicity of the prapatti mârga, the observer of prapatti yoga does not have a reason to get this kind of feeling. It is important to keep in mind that bhagavân is the only real upâya (siddha upâya) for moksham, and prapatti is the sâddhya upâya that makes it possible to bring the siddha upâya into action.

bhakti vs. prapatti

It has been pointed out in previous stotra-s that the SAstra-s declare bhakti yoga and prapatti yoga as the two paths for moksha. We have also seen that these are two entirely independent means. svâmi deśikan reiterates this point here (Slokam 15).

  • Even the guṇa-s of bhagavân on which we meditate when observing the two paths are different. Thus, bhakti yoga involves observance of several vidyâ-s, and the particular guṇa associated with the vidyâ being observed is to be meditated upon as the different vidyâ-s are observed. For prapatti, the only guṇa to be contemplated upon is His guṇa of being the sole upâya for moksha without depending on any other act on our part other than prapatti or śaraṇam.
  • The verbs that are used to describe bhakti yoga in the upanishad-s are different from those that are used to describe prapatti. Thus, for example, upâsîta etc. for bhakti, and śaraṇam vraja for prapatti. Words such as vedana, dhyâna, upâsana, darśana etc. all are used to refer to bhakti yoga, and words such as śaraṇâgati, prapadana, tyâga, Atma nikshepaṇa, nyâsa, etc. are used to refer to prapatti yoga.

    In brahma sūtra-s, SrI vyâsa points out that when different terms are used for different types of meditation, even though the end is the same, these are to be considered as independent means, through the sūtra “nânâ śabdâdi bhedât” - 3.3.56.
  • In nyâsa vimśatih it was pointed out that by performing prapatti, the effects of the prârabdha karma-s will be forgiven except those that are to be enjoyed in the current birth, and at the end of this life there will be no residual karma for which a re-birth will be needed. Such is not the case with bhakti yoga, where the effects of prârabdha karma-s have to be lived and enjoyed, which may take several lives, and only at the end of this will moksha be attained. Thus there is difference even in the time it takes for moksha to be attained through the bhakti and prapatti yoga-s.
  • bhakti yoga needs to be observed day in and day out, till the end of life. Prapatti yoga needs to be done just once, like a yâga, which is performed just once for a given desired benefit.
  • bhakti and prapatti both have their special aspects which may make them both difficult in their own ways - bhakti yoga because of the great effort and exertion involved, and prapatti because of the great faith involved. bhakti yoga requires patience to wait to acquire the j~nâna, Sakti, and phala, extending over several births even, birth in a high caste or varṇa, rigorous constraints on the body, observance of the bhakti yoga till the end of this life, etc. prapatti requires development of mahâ viśvâsam, but this can be developed once there is the will, but prapatti needs to be done only once in one’s lifetime. Only those who have the ability to undergo the strenuous requirements of bhakti yoga, in addtion to being born in the varṇa that allows the requirements of bhakti yoga, can pursue bhakti yoga, and even they have to fall back to prapatti as the alternative if they cannot pursue it after they start it, if they are still interested in moksha. The desire for prapatti arises only when a person feels extreme remorse about the heaps of sins he has accumulated, and the inability to overcome the effects of these in any number of births through any other means.

prapatti mârga not a part of bhakti mârga, But An Independent Means

There are several different alternate approaches which can be pursued as part of bhakti yoga, such as dahara vidyâ, sad-vidyâ, viaśvânara vidyâ etc., and these are all collectively known as bhakti yoga, and are not given individual identities as separate mosha upâya-s. Since prapatti is one other alternative for moksha, some argue that there is no need to identify prapatti as a separate means and give it a unique identity. svâmi deśikan points out that there is a distinct aspect of prapatti that is not part of the different alternatives under bhakti yoga. The different alternatives under bhakti yoga are left to one’s choice based on one’s inclinations, taste etc. But prapatti is for those who have realized that there is absolutely nothing else that is open to them. So there is no issue of choice, and thus this is a category of its own unlike any other means.

Those who perform bhakti yoga successfully will get all that they desire including moksha. So also those who do prapatti will get everything they desire, including moksha. The peak of folly (buddhi daurbalya kâshṭhâ - Slokam 18) is for one who is unfit for bhakti yoga to undertake it because of lack of trust in the efficacy of prapatti. They will be wise to realize their limitations with respect to bhakti yoga, and have complete trust in prapatti as the moksha upâya that is within their means, and follow this path.

More doubts about prapatti answered (Slokam 19)

In nyâsa vimśatih, svâmi deśikan addressed several questions that have been raised by the opponents of prapatti as an independent means for moksha. In the current stotra, he addresses some more of these questions. He rhetorically raises five doubts that question the efficacy of prapatti, and answers them so that especially the “learned analysts” among us who can raise these kinds of questions can be put to rest. These questions are:

  1. How is it possible that on the one hand we have committed enormous sins that are beyond even our comprehension, and then expect to do prapatti just once, and expect to achieve nearness to bhagavân?
  2. bhagavân is known to give only the benefits according to the karmâ-s that have been performed by the cetana. How can it be possible that we do prapatti once, and then get the vaikuṇṭham that even the likes of brahma, Siva, etc. have not attained?
  3. How is it possible that bhagavân, who needs nothing from anyone, just accepts the simple, easy-to-observe, prapatti, and then in return bestows this greatest and best of phala-s, viz. moksham and permanent relief from samsâram?
  4. śrîman nârâyaṇa is known to not easily bestow benefits on His devotees, unlike the lesser gods who are easy to please and who bestow what their devotees pray for relatively easily. How is it possible that cetana does the prapatti, and then śrîman nârâyaṇa gives moksham to this prapanna whenever the prapanna chooses after the expiration of the prârabdha karmâ-s that are currently being enjoyed?
  5. How can it be true that bhagavân gives the same great benefit viz. moksha to everyone who does prapatti, without distinguishing between the different cetana-s?

svâmi deśikan points out that a proper understanding of the significance of His nâma as śrîman and nârâyaṇa will dissolve these doubts - not just be, but solve them - according to the nice translation by SrI D. râmasvâmi aiyengâr. SrI râmadeśikâcârya svâmi re-emphasizes that this is where the âcârya plays his role. Here are brief explanations that are offered both in SrI râmadeśikâcârya svâmi’s commentary and in SrI D. râmasvâmi aiyengâr’s commentary.

  1. Response to 1) pirâṭṭi’s purushakâratvam (recommendation, interceding on our behalf) is the reason that we are able to approach Him in spite of our enormous sins. The important point here is that bhagavân will not reject any appeal from Her who is the personification of Mercy towards us, and so we can appraoch Him without fear, which we cannot hope to do in the absence of pirâṭṭi’s purushakâratvam.
  2. Response to 2) It is true that He gives the benefits consistent with the karma-s or action of the cetana. But there is a special relationship between Himself and a prapanna, and this is one of His being the Master and the prapanna being His servant. This relationship entitles the prapanna to the right of protection from Him, and thus He will definitely offer the protection because it is His responsibility. SrI D. râmasvâmi aiyengâr points out that He is nârâyaṇa who is in all beings and who has all beings within Him. னான் உன்னை அன்றி இலேன் கண்டாய் நாரணனே! நீ என்னையன்றி இலை - tirumaḻiśai âḻvâr; உன் தன்னோடு உறவேல் நமக்கு இங்கு ஒழிக்க ஒழியாது - ANDAl. So He is as anxious to get us back to Himself as we are to go to Him. He is only waiting for a vyâja or pretext to protect us. When we put up our hands, He catches hold of them and draws us unto Himself. He came and protected gajendra who cried out for His protection while gods were put aside. That is the extent of His love towards a śaraṇâgatan.
  3. Response to 3) While it is true that bhagavân is not in need of anything from anyone, it is His Nature that He is abundantly Merciful, and thus a small act such as prapatti by the cetana is considered a big sacrifice by Him and thus He rewards the prapanna with such a big benefit as moksha. SrI râmasvâmi aiyengâr points out that when draupadi cried out for His help, He helped her, but kept feeling for the rest of incarnation that He had not done enough to help her.
  4. Response to 4) While bhagavân does not bestow benefits quickly in general, it is His declared position that He will offer protection to those who seek refuge in Him (prapanna-s), and so He offers moksham whenever the prapanna desires.
  5. Response to 5) When He offers moksham to the prapanna, He really considers that He is the one who has benefited in the process. Thus, independent of who it is that seeks His protection, He does not differentiate and bestows moksham to them. SrI râmasvâmi aiyengâr points out that for Him, rich and poor, learned or not learned, etc. do not make a difference, and He is like the cloud which pours on one and all without distinction or difference. This is His nature.

The life of a prapanna

The prapanna-s have entrusted the complete responsibility for themselves, their âtmâ, and the purpose of their existence to bhagavân. They are dear to Him as His responsibility now. Their sole purpose in life is His kaimkaryam. Their only real joy is His guṇânubhavam. They don’t even have to think of Him as an upâya for moksha any more because their âcârya-s have taken the role of the upâya for them (Recall that âcârya-s are to be treated the same as bhagavân by the prapanna - nyâsa vimśatih). Their natural satisfaction is in being His sesha-s (servants) (Slokam 11).

Having performed prapatti, the prapanna is fully aware of his inability to follow any means (Akincanya, kârpaṇya) other than prapatti for moksha. Thus he does not seek any other means (ananya gatitva), and trusts in bhagavân as his sole Protector (goptṛtva varaṇam). He is fully confident about attaining moksha as a result of the prapatti that has already been performed (mahâ viśvâsa), is firmly determined to desist from any act that will displease Him (prâtikūlya varjanam), and equally firm in performing only acts that will please Him (ânukūlya samkalpa). Even though the prapanna may be really interested in hastening his union with bhagavân in śrîvaikuṇṭham, he will not make any effort whatsoever in this direction since it is not his responsibility any more to be concerned about his self - Slokam 12.

As mentioned in nyâsa vimśatih, the prapanna does not indulge in any act that is directed towards benefit for his own self, and scrupulously stays away from anything that is a violation of SAstra-s. If by chance, either of these are violated and he has committed an act contrary to these, he feels shame and sorrow for this and performs a prâyaścitta prapatti, and the sins associated with these violations are forgiven by bhagavân. Since the SAstra-s have been given to us by bhagavân with the purpose of guiding us to proper conduct in life that has prapatti as the central goal (nyâsa antaranga - Slokam 13), the prapanna follows the SAstra-s, performs his varṇâśrama dharma-s as prescribed and without fail, does not seek protection other than from śrîman nârâyaṇa, and if he then unknowingly commits any sin, bhagavân has the Infinite Mercy to forgive these offenses.

While bhagavân thus eliminates the effects of all karma-s of a cetana that will result in a re-birth, if he commits any sins that are directed towards pure self-satisfaction, he gets minor punishments such as sufferings in this life. These are purely for the purpose of keeping the cetana on track so that he does not slip into a life of pleasures and forgets his purpose in this life (Slokam 14).

bhagavân’s assurance on the results of prapatti

svâmi deśikan makes reference to śaraṇâgati gadyam by bhagavad râmânuja to emphasize the certainty of the results from prapatti. After SrI râmânuja performed prapatti at Lord ranganâtha’s Feet, bhagavân gave the following assurance to râmânuja (extract from śaraṇâgati gadyam):

मा ते भूत् अत्र सम्शयः | अनृतं नोक्त पूर्वं मे न च वक्ष्ये कदाचन |
रामो द्विर-नाभिभाषते |

सकृदेव प्रपन्नाय तवास्मीति च याचते |
अभयं सर्व भूतेभ्यो ददाम्येतत् व्रतं मम ||
सर्व धर्मान् परित्यज्य माम् एकं शरणं व्रज |
अहं त्वा सर्व पापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः ||

इति मयैव हि उक्तम् | अतस-त्वं तव तत्त्वतो मद-ज~नान दर्शन प्राप्तिषु
निस्सम्शयस-सुखम् आस्व |

Entertain no doubt about it. I have never uttered, nor shall I ever utter, a falsehood; râma never speaks in two voices.

For him who bows even once to Me saying “I am Yours”, I grant him shelter and protection from all evils. This is my vow.

Renounce all dharma-s and surrender unto Me only. I shall save you from all sins. Don’t’ grieve.

Therefore you may rest free of doubt in the matter of obtaining true knowledge about Me, True Realization and attainment of Me.

The Need To Be on Guard Following Prapatti

After illustrating the principles of prapatti in the first 22 Sloka-s, svâmi deśikan reinforces these thoughts by pointing out that after prapatti there is no reason to transgress the lifestyle that a prapanna is expected to lead, even though there will be pressures from the frailty of human mind. SrI râmasvâmi aiyengâr points out that it is normal and natural that the prapanna’s mind goes through periods of depression and elation following prapatti, and svâmi deśikan addresses these and gives his views on how to overcome these. He is addressing these thoughts and advice to his own mind to illustrate the point for us.

It is Natural To Have Periods of Depression Following prapatti (Slokam 23)

bhagavân has already assured through various ways that once a cetana has done prapatti, it is His responsibility to give moksha to the prapanna at the end of this life. However, human mind is frail, and so a prapanna can feel depressed because he can be drawn back to the dictates of his indriya-s. SrI râmasvâmi aiyengâr points us to nammâḻvâr’s śaraṇâgati to tiruvēnkaṭamudaiyân in tiruvâi mozhi 6–10, which is immediately followed by his crying out to bhagavân to save him from the onslaught of his indriya-s. He also refers to svâmi deśikan’s ashṭabhujâshtakam, where he describes how he ascends aloft in the spiritual ladder and how he again falls to the ground - all this notwithstanding the fact that the Merciful Lord, our Refuge, waits nearby determined to help us.

Reasons To Feel Reassured and Elated (Slokam 24)

svâmi deśikan reminds us again that when prapatti is done through an âcârya, bhagavân is bound to bestow moksha on the prapanna because He will never go against the wish of the âcârya. There is no other benefit higher than moksham, and so there is no need for a prapanna to think back and look for temporary pleasures like even svarga. There is also no need for the prapanna to be concerned about continued pains and pleasures that he undergoes during the rest of the life in this world after prapatti. This is inevitable and needs to be gone through as part of the prârabdha karma that is left to be enjoyed, and is thus inevitable. So the bottom line is that the prapanna should lead the life of kaimkaryam to bhagavân and enjoy it, while awaiting moksha at the end of this life.

Bhagavân is Ever-Forgiving

Bhagavân has undertaken the responsibility to give moksha to the prapanna, and is infinitely Merciful in forgiving any apacâra-s, and there is no need to fall at the feet of another man for any favor or reason whatsoever. Once the responsibility for the prapanna’s protection has been placed under His care, there is no need to praise or serve any one else in thought, word, or deed. The servitude to anyone else does not make sense when the pleasure of kaimkaryam to bhagavân is open to us. This is not only true of praising other humans, but even the likes of brahma and Siva, who can only confer transient and temporary benefits.

The Ultimate Truth, The Ultimate Wealth

svâmi deśikan brings out some of the greatest gems of truth very elegantly in Slokam 30. These are:

  1. The greatest of wealths is the bhâgyam to do kaimkaryam to pirâṭṭî and perumâḷ;
  2. The greatest of ignorances is the feeling of independence from Him;
  3. The greatest knowledge is the realization that the divya dampati-s are the abode of limitless guṇa-s and wealth of every kind in its perfection;
  4. all this - in other words, the bhâgyam to do nitya kaimkaryam to Them in SrI vaikuṇṭham eternally, is obtained by one who has understood the significance of prapatti and performed śaraṇâgati at the divya-dampati’s Lotus Feet.

In Slokam 31, the sequence of events in a prapanna’s life is very briefly captured. First, the cetana gets the dvaya mantra upadeśa from the âcârya (i.e., he does prapatti). This eradicates all previous sins which have not yet started to bear fruit. All future sins that are done unknowingly are forgiven by bhagavân. After the effects of the karma-s for which this birth had been assumed are over, the prapanna can attain moksham any time he desires. When this life comes to an end, bhagavan leads the prapanna with His own parivâra of nitya-sūri-s etc. through the arcirâdi mârga to SrI vaikuṇṭham. Through the karuṇâ of bhagavân the prapanna’s Self Knowledge becomes perfect, and He is blessed with the gift of eternal and permanent pleasure of nitya kaimkaryam to the divya dampati-s.


svâmi deśikan concludes the stotra by pointing out that bhagavân is in śrîrangam in the form of Lord ranganâtha, (and in other divya kshetra-s as the different arcâ-mūrti-s), only to give us the opportunity to do kaimkaryam to Him in this world and derive the pleasure that a prapanna will get when he is in śrîvaikuṇṭham. svâmi deśikan composed “nyâsa tilakam” outlining the steps involved in prapatti as revealed to him by Lord ranganâtha, and those who surrender to Him and do prapatti are assured of the ultimate wealth and pleasure of kaimkaryam to Him here and hereafter.

—dâsan kṛshṇamâcâryan